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This, that, these, and those



HowĀ do we useĀ thisĀ andĀ these?

We useĀ thisĀ (singular) andĀ theseĀ (plural) as pronouns:

ā€“ to talk about people or thingsĀ near us:

  • ThisĀ is a nice cup of tea.
  • Whose shoes areĀ these?

ā€“ toĀ introduce people:

  • ThisĀ is Janet.
  • TheseĀ are my friends, John and Michael.

We donā€™t say:Ā These are John and Michael.
We say:Ā This is John and this is Michael.

ā€“ to introduce ourselves to begin a conversationĀ on the phone:

  • Hello,Ā thisĀ is David. Can I speak to Sally?

HowĀ do we useĀ thatĀ andĀ those?

We useĀ thatĀ (singular) andĀ thoseĀ (plural):

ā€“ to talk about things that areĀ not nearĀ us:

  • Whatā€™sĀ that? ā€“ Thatā€™s a modern car.
  • This is our house, andĀ thatā€™s Rebeccaā€™s house over there.
  • ThoseĀ are very expensive shoes.

ā€“ We also useĀ thatĀ to refer back to something someone said or did:

  • ā€“ Shall we go to the cinema?
    ā€“ Yes,Ā thatā€™s a good idea.
  • ā€“ Iā€™ve got a new job.
    ā€“Ā Thatā€™s great.
  • ā€“ Iā€™m very tired.
    ā€“ Why isĀ that?

this,Ā these,Ā that,Ā thoseĀ withĀ nouns

We also useĀ this,Ā these,Ā thatĀ andĀ thoseĀ withĀ nounsĀ to show proximity

We useĀ thisĀ andĀ theseĀ for people or things near us:

  • We have lived inĀ thisĀ houseĀ for twenty years.
  • Have you read all ofĀ theseĀ books?

ā€¦ andĀ thatĀ andĀ thoseĀ for people or things that are not near us:

  • Who lives inĀ thatĀ house?
  • Who areĀ thoseĀ people?

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